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Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention

A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked, leading to damage or death of the heart tissue. It is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Here is an overview of the causes, symptoms, and prevention of heart attacks:


  • Coronary artery disease (CAD): The most common cause of heart attacks is CAD, which occurs when the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to a buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis). Consult with your Cardiologist in Karachi to know more.
  • Blood clot: A heart attack can also be caused by a blood clot that forms in one of the coronary arteries, cutting off blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • Spasm of coronary artery: In some cases, the coronary arteries may go into spasm, leading to a temporary reduction or complete blockage of blood flow to the heart.

Risk factors:

Several factors can increase the risk of experiencing a heart attack. These include:

  • Age: The risk of heart attack increases with age, especially for men over 45 and women over 55.
  • Gender: Men are generally at higher risk of heart attacks, but the risk for women increases after menopause.
  • Family history: Having a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, who has had a heart attack, increases your risk.
  • High blood pressure: Uncontrolled high blood pressure puts strain on the heart and increases the risk of heart disease.
  • High cholesterol: Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) can contribute to the formation of plaque in the arteries.
  • Smoking: Tobacco use damages the blood vessels and increases the risk of blood clots.
  • Diabetes: People with diabetes are at higher risk of heart disease and heart attacks.
  • Obesity: Excess weight puts additional strain on the heart and increases the likelihood of developing heart problems.


The symptoms of a heart attack can vary, and they may differ between men and women. Common symptoms include:

  • Chest pain or discomfort: This can manifest as a tightness, pressure, squeezing, or burning sensation in the chest that may spread to the arms, shoulders, jaw, neck, or back.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing or feeling like you can’t catch your breath.
  • Nausea, indigestion, or vomiting: Some people experience these symptoms during a heart attack.
  • Cold sweat, lightheadedness, or fainting: These symptoms can occur suddenly and may be accompanied by chest discomfort.


While certain risk factors for heart attacks, such as age and family history, cannot be changed, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk:

  • Adopt a healthy diet: Eat a balanced diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products. Limit saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugars.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: If overweight or obese, aim to lose weight through a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity.
  • Exercise regularly: Engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, for at least 150 minutes per week. Consult your doctor before starting any new exercise program.
  • Don’t smoke: Quitting smoking reduces your risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.
  • Manage chronic conditions: Control conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol through medication, lifestyle changes, and regular medical check-ups.
  • Limit alcohol consumption: If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For men, that means up to two drinks per day, and for women, one drink per day.
  • Manage stress: Find healthy ways to cope with stress, such as exercising, practicing relaxation techniques, or engaging in hobbies you enjoy.
  • Regular check-ups: Schedule regular visits with your healthcare provider to monitor your health, manage risk factors, and detect any potential issues early.

If you experience symptoms of a heart attack or suspect someone else is having one, call emergency services immediately. Acting quickly can save lives. Moreover, consulting the Best Cardiologist in Lahore for heart attack related concerns is advised.

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